The error you describe when publishing the CT will be evident in the log stacktrace. This is probably a "Request Entity Too Large" error, meaning that the number of Component Presentations that end up being rendered and sent to the Deployer based on the CT amounts to a bigger size than you have configured in your cd_deployer_conf.xml (default is 10 megs).
The error, however, is most likely not related to why the changes of the published Components using this CT don't show up when refreshing your webpage.
This is often a cause of object cache on the website being turned on without the Cache Channel Service. One way to check if your Component is successfully getting into the Broker is looking in the Component_Presentations table in the DB. First unpublish, check that the table has no record, then republish and see if a record got created. If it is created, then the problem is not the Deployer or the publishing process - it is the website config.
If it is the website config, then most likely you have the object cache set to "true" in your cd_storage_conf.ml, but the Cache Channel Service not being configured correctly. So you won't be getting updated content when it's republished. Check that the Cache Channel Service is running (if .NET, then it's a Windows Service on one of the CD machines (and sometimes with JMS); if Java it could be a standalone command line program or JMS configuration), if the service is up, this could be firewall settings for the RMI ports to be open for the Cache Channel Service.