While I was going through the Publish.js, I found a predefined method
From where does this method fetches the Priority List?
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As I see this is internal functionality of the product, so maybe some details how it works can provide someone from SDL. The question here is what are you trying to achieve, since I am not sure that managing list of publish priorities can be done (adding "ultra super hype priority"). Instead of changing this list, I would suggest using security to deny/allow some users to publish on high/normal.
Tridion.ContentManager.CoreService.Client.xml file set the publishing targets. please check below code with file path. this sdlweb product code, we can`t modify directly.
\tridion\bin\client\CoreService\Tridion.ContentManager.CoreService.Client.xml <member name="F:Tridion.ContentManager.CoreService.Client.PublishPriority.Low"> <summary> Low priority. </summary> </member> <member name="F:Tridion.ContentManager.CoreService.Client.PublishPriority.Normal"> <summary> Normal priority. </summary> </member> <member name="F:Tridion.ContentManager.CoreService.Client.PublishPriority.High"> <summary> High priority. </summary> </member> tridion\web\WebUI\Editors\CME\Tabs\TargetTypes.js Tridion.Cme.TargetTypesTab.PRIORITY_DROPDOWN_HEAD_PATH = $config.expandEditorPath("Xml/ListDefinitions/TargetTypePriorityDropdown-head.xml", $const.CMEEditorName);