Components like navigation, breadcrumbs, toolbar, table, login, search are the components mostly used in every web portal. Does Tridion has its default set of library providing these components OOTB, that can be leveraged/re-used/extended for any new website based on Tridion?
Tridion default installation do not provide OOTB components in question. But if you follow blogs and SdL tridion world, you will find lots of examples and code you need as per your requirement.
Navigation: you can publish sitemap xml and use asp.net controls to render navigation and breadcrumbs. Help Link: http://www.tridiondeveloper.com/web-sitemap
Login: you can use default .net login controls.
Search: Google search appliance / SOLR etc are integration points. Help Link:Search products and SDL Tridion 2011
In Tridion Content management & Content Delivery are decoupled. CM is used to manage content, which you publish to disk/db & use choice of your technology stack e.g net/java. Above facilities comes in purview of your Content Delivery website not CM. CD you can consider it like any .net/java site where you need separate effort to implement/integrate those features
Tridion does not provide OOTB components.
However, there does exist a "Default Schemas for Tridion" github project which can help you at least get started on making some of the most common components for your clients: https://github.com/paceaux/Default-Schemas-for-Tridion
You'll have the option to select either PascalCase or camelCase schemas.