If you mean TCM URIs, then the answer is no. The TCM URI is unique for each individual Tridion instance and there is no guarantee that an item with TCM URI X from system A is the same item on system B.
Consider the following example: On system A a Content editor creates a new component. It gets ID: tcm:10-1-16. On System B, a template developer creates a new Page template. It gets ID: tcm:10-1-128. The Content Editor then creates a component on System B with the same content as on system A. However, this component gets ID tcm:10-2-16, because the unique number 1 is already given away. This may also vary for each Tridion Item Type as well, but I'm actually not sure about that.
In any case, you see that it is virtually impossible to have the same TCM URIs across environments, unless you migrate the entire Tridion CM database to act as another instance.
It is always possible to have the same WebdavUrls, if the Blueprint (and Publication Titles), Folder Titles, Structure Group Titles and item titles are the same across instances. When developing templates it is therefore always recommended to use WebDAVUrls if you need to fetch items from the Tridion CM through the TOM or Core Service APIs.