Assuming your dynamically published Component Presentation is using a default DD4T style Component Template, all you need to do is retrieve the Component using the ComponentFactory as part of your controller action.
You can get the ComponentFactory from the DependencyResolver like so
var componentFactory = DependencyResolver.Current.GetService<IComponentFactory>();
and then get the Component like this
IComponent component = componentFactory.GetComponent("tcm:180-278512");
Optionally you can put a Component Template ID into the GetComponent method as a second parameter - this is important if you have multiple DCPs with different link levels set on the CT.
If you're using something like Ninject as your dependency injection container to construct your controllers you could add the ComponentFactory as a property or constructor parameter to make you code more flexible.